After a decade of Soviet occupation in Afghanistan and the resulting internal conflict, the removal of explosive remnants of war (ERW) became a complicated issue. Systematic clearance of ERW was difficult to establish due to the volatile security situation and an inability to regulate clearance work. However, due to collaboration between the United Nations and Afghan nongovernmental organizations, mine clearance operations were successfully established in Afghanistan in the 1990s.
"Humanitarian Mine Action in Afghanistan: A History,"
Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction: Vol. 19
, Article 10.
Available at: http://commons.lib.jmu.edu/cisr-journal/vol19/iss3/10