Historically the Republic of Iraq is one of the most severely landmine, explosive remnants of war (ERW), and improvised explosive device (IED) afflicted nations in the world. Though possessed with a robust humanitarian mine action (HMA) program in the three northern Kurdish governorates before the Iraq War (2003–2011), the remainder of the country was largely without any HMA focus until the removal of the Ba’ath regime. Iraq’s border with Iran contains major military minefields and ERW, while small arms and innumerable stockpiles of ammunition remain throughout the country. High levels of landmine, ERW, and IED contamination are a major challenge for the government and HMA responders, and increasingly impair mobility among segments of the civilian population, placing the Iraqi people in an untenable situation. The Iraqi political process remains gridlocked, which negatively impacts the work conducted by Iraqi government institutions, including the Directorate of Mine Action (DMA) in Baghdad.
Barzangy, Isam Ghareeb
"Bridging a Critical Mine Action Information Management Gap: Complex Conflict Environments,"
Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction: Vol. 21
, Article 13.
Available at: http://commons.lib.jmu.edu/cisr-journal/vol21/iss2/13