Low examinee effort in low-stakes assessment: Problems and potential solutions

Document Type


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Publication Date



Student test-taking motivation in low-stakes assessment testing is examined in terms of both its relationship to test performance and the implications of low student effort for test validity. A theoretical model of test-taking motivation is presented, with a synthesis of previous research indicating that low student motivation is associated with a substantial decrease in test performance. A number of assessment practices and data analytic procedures for managing the problems posed by low student motivation are discussed.