Date of Award
Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN)
Department of Nursing
Christine A. Argenbright
This literature review examined two pharmacological forms of postoperative pain
management and one nonpharmacological intervention to help reduce pain (See
Appendix A). Sources were gathered from the nursing research databases of
Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and PubMed.
Articles and studies between 2004 and 2015 were analyzed to write the review. The
focus was to look at postoperative patients and determine if epidural or patient
controlled analgesia (PCA) provided the same satisfaction for individuals who
underwent surgery. In addition, music therapy was researched to explore the effects
of listening to a pleasurable sound and how it might reduce the pain experience.
Although, epidural and PCA are widely used to reduce pain management in surgical
patients, epidural administration was more effective in controlling pain levels but is
associated with serious risks. Patient controlled analgesia allows patients to have a
sense of control and reduce the level of fear associated with surgery, potential pain,
and sense of inferiority.
Schuler, Taylor H., "Postoperative Pain Management" (2015). Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current. 19.