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Date of Award

Spring 2014

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Department of Graduate Psychology


In effort to gather construct validity evidence for a new measure of mental toughness, the Mental Toughness in Sport Questionnaire (MTSQ-32), confirmatory factor analyses were performed to examine the plausibility of competing theoretical models. This was done in accordance with Benson's (1998) strong program of construct validity. Four primary models were tested: a unidimensional model, a five-factor model based upon social-cognitive personality theory, a five-factor model based upon the commonly identified attributes of mental toughness, and a 10-factor multidimensional model combining the two five-factor models. Further models were tested that expanded upon the four former by including a reverse coding method effect factor. Complete data on the 32-item questionnaire was collected from 536 high school athletes. Although the unidimensional, unidimensional with the method effect factor, and five-factor attribute models converged to admissible solutions, ultimately none of the hypothesized models were able to provide adequate fit to the data. However, upon the exploratory removal of item 25, the five-factor attribute model provided preliminary support for fitting the data. Implications of this study were discussed, as well as implications for future research.

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