Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Date of Graduation

Summer 2019

Document Type


Degree Name

Educational Specialist (EdS)


Department of Graduate Psychology


Ashton Trice


There are limited studies that have investigated levels of hardiness in children. There is even less information on finding hardiness scales that have been normed on children in elementary school. The purpose of this study was to test the validity and reliability of the Hardiness Scale for Children (HSC), which assesses the three subscales of hardiness: Challenge, Control, and Commitment. 121 elementary school students (2nd-5th grade) were selected to complete the HSC. Their parents were also asked to complete a three-item scale to measure their child’s hardiness. The results indicated that older children tended to give themselves a higher rating on the HSC, but a clear pattern was not present. Small but adequate correlations were found between the parent ratings and the children’s total HSC ratings in addition to the Challenge and Control subscales. The participants’ ratings on the Commitment subscale items may not have been significantly correlated with parent ratings because this subscale has the least number of items. A test of internal consistency of all the HSC items yielded a Chronbach’s Alpha of 0.73, which indicates adequate full-scale reliability. Subscale tests of internal consistency indicated that removing items two and twelve would increase the reliability of the Challenge and Commitment dimensions. With these changes, alpha for both Challenge and Control would be 0.57, and Commitment would be 0.47. Given the low number of items on the HSC, the limited response options on the HSC, and the fact that the respondents were children—with respect to the findings of Cortina (1993)—the full-scale and subscale alpha levels can be considered adequate. Based on the results, the researcher is cautiously optimistic that the HSC is a fairly reliable and valid assessment of children’s hardiness. Information gathered from future studies can facilitate the development of training programs that can be implemented in schools to promote resilience in children.