Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


School of Hospitality, Sport and Recreation Management


David Shonk

Emeka Anaza

Benjamin Carr


The aim of this paper is to investigate the constraints, or barriers, that people with disabilities (PwDs) perceive as factors related to their participation in sport and recreation activities. An electronic questionnaire was administered through email via a regional disability advocacy and programming organization and was completed by PwDs with varying levels and types of disability. The questionnaire included questions related to three different dimensions of constraint: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural, as well as subdimensions within the structural constraint. From the data analysis, five different conclusions were drawn: 1) The interpersonal constraint was the most commonly cited constraint. 2) The community/organization subdimension of structural constraints is the most commonly experienced. 3) There is a positive correlation between the presence of all three dimensions of constraints. 4) There are negative correlations between satisfaction levels and equipment availability and between the desire to participate and the presence of structural constraints. 5) Researchers were unable to identify a statistical gender significance in relation to barriers; however, there were differences in how each gender ranked different types of constraints. These findings are relevant to industry professionals with regard to identifying programming that may help to negotiate through these constraints, as well as to future researchers with regard to further exploring these constraints through qualitative research Future research should consider the limitations of the study, which include the use of a relatively old model of constraints, the low response rate through electronic delivery, and the lack of controls for other factors relating to constraints, especially socioeconomic status.


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