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ABSTRACT: Modern Greece has held a marginal existence in the study of nationalism, and yet there is a wealth of information that it provides, which can broaden our understanding of nationalism and state-building, especially in the Balkans. The purpose of this article is to examine the various facets of Greek identity during the outbreak of the independence movement, and how identity shaped and affected the movement itself. This article argues that Greek identity was too multifarious to create a strongly defined national identity. Furthermore, this lack of national identity led to several years of civil war during the independence movement and the political strife that characterised the newly formed state. This article examines the weak sense of national identity and the complexities of the Greek War of Independence through identity within the various socioeconomic groups of the Greek-speaking lands, which have rarely been addressed.