Revising the scale of intellectual development: Application of an unfolding model
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An unfolding model was selected for the scores on the Scale of Intellectual Development to take into account that, for stage-based instruments, agreement with a statement first increases as the student approaches the stage represented by the statement, then decreases as the student progresses beyond that stage.
DeMars, C. E., & Erwin, T. D. (2003). Revising the scale of intellectual development: Application of an unfolding model. Journal of College Student Development, 44, 168-184.