Once a Portuguese colony, Mozambique achieved independence in 1975 after a 12-year struggle led by Frente de Libertação de Moçambique (FRELIMO). Between 1977 and 1992 about a million Mozambicans died as the result of fighting or famine in a war that left the country unstable and its economy in ruins. In 1992, a United Nations-negotiated peace agreement led to the end of a civil war between FRELIMO and the rebel group Resistência Nacional Moçambicana (RENAMO). Following a brief period of stability, Mozambique suffered severe flooding in 2000 and 2001, which destroyed much of the nation’s infrastructure. Then in 2002, a drought hit central and southern parts of the country, leaving previously flooded areas dry. Thirty years of war, combined with floods, drought and famine, have left Mozambique one of the poorest countries in Africa.



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