Effective mine action requires numerous actors to peacefully collaborate: governmental and nongovernmental, international and local. Armed non-state actors (ANSA) that operate beyond central control, such as rebel opposition groups and paramilitary organizations, and private defense companies can often provide necessary contributions to mine action. Understanding ANSAs allows humanitarian organizations to communicate, cooperate and avoid conflict.
"Mine-clearance Activities and ANSA Participation: An Analysis,"
Journal of Mine Action
: Vol. 11
, Article 24.
Available at: https://commons.lib.jmu.edu/cisr-journal/vol11/iss2/24