This article discusses experimental results achieved with a robotic countermine system that utilizes autonomous behaviors and a mixed-initiative control scheme to address the challenges of detecting and marking buried landmines. By correlating aerial imagery and ground-based robot mapping, the interface provides context for the operator to task the robot. Once tasked, the robot can perform the search and detection task without the use of accurate global positioning system information or continuous communication with the operator. Results show that the system was able to find and mark landmines with a very low level of human involvement. In addition, the data indicates that the robotic system may be able to decrease the time to find mines and increase the detection, accuracy and reliability.



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