Mines, cluster submunitions, and unexploded ordnance (UXO) contamination plague Lebanon as a result of a 15-year civil war ending in 1990, two Israeli invasions in 1978 and 1982, and the July–August conflict with Israel in 2006. The Lebanon Mine Action Centre (LMAC) identified 2,598 mined areas covering 191,000,000 sq m of land. Following non-technical survey (NTS) and clearance operations, there is an estimated 30,316,080 sq m of suspected hazardous area remaining. Although some cluster munition contamination remains from the 1982 conflicts, much of the contamination is the result of the 2006 conflict with Israel, during which nearly four million cluster submunitions were fired into Lebanon. Cluster munition contamination has a huge socioeconomic impact on Lebanon’s agricultural sector; about 1,438,259 sq m of unused land will be available for crop and livestock cultivation after cluster munition clearance is complete.



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