Burma has long been known to be heavily contaminated by landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW), with 3,693 casualties reported since 1999.1 The area is a complex and dynamic environment for humanitarian organizations, with multiple overlapping and interlinked conflicts between a number of disparate Ethnic Armed Organizations (EAO) and the Burmese Armed Forces, fought over several decades. In this context, international humanitarian mine action (HMA) operators have not been able to provide any form of technical response; there is currently no mine action coordination center, no agreed national standards, and no demarcation, technical survey, or clearance operations recognized by HMA operators.



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