When in control of the area of Iraq north of Baghdad, including the city of Fallujah, ISIS prepared to defend its position from inevitable government counterattack through the widespread use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) laid as defensive obstacles in patterns similar to conventional minefields.1 The subsequent destruction of bridges over the Tigris River further strengthened the ability of ISIS to defend the city and prevent the civilians trapped within from escaping.
Wilkinson, Mark Ph.D.
"IED Threat Consistency and Predictability in Fallujah: A 'Simple' Model for Clearance,"
Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction: Vol. 23
, Article 4.
Available at: https://commons.lib.jmu.edu/cisr-journal/vol23/iss2/4