More than any other post-conflict environment in Iraq, the complexity of west Mosul and its improvised explosive device (IED) threat challenges our fundamental perceptions and definitions of mine action. From here, 400 km (248.5 mi) north of Baghdad in the al-Maedan District on the west side of the Tigris River, ISIS ran its caliphate and made its ill-fated last stand against attacking Iraqi Security Forces (ISF).
Wilkinson, Mark Ph.D.
"IEDs and Urban Clearance Variables in Mosul: Defining Complex Environments,"
Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction: Vol. 23
, Article 5.
Available at: https://commons.lib.jmu.edu/cisr-journal/vol23/iss2/5