The most deployed detection technology for landmine clearance is the metal detector (MD).1 Other detection technologies exist, such as ground penetrating radar,2 chemical sensors,3 biological sensors,4 and infrared imaging,5 to name a few. However, despite their widespread use, MDs suffer from high false-alarm (FA) rates since they cannot differentiate between the metal components in a landmine and harmless metal clutter. Deminers using MDs usually rely on their personal experience to differentiate between the sounds emitted by the MD when scanning a landmine or an item of clutter. Usually, they continue to excavate on a large number of occasions and end up finding a harmless piece of metal. For each found single landmine, it is estimated that a hundred to a thousand false positives are encountered.6 The high FA rate substantially slows the demining process and increases costs. This delays the recovery of contaminated land and the resumption of everyday activities around the affected areas.



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