The U.S. and Coalition forces’ occupation of airfields at Bagram and Kandahar in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom was initially hampered by the presence of a large number of mines and UXO in both the immediate and surrounding areas of the airfields. U.S. and Coalition forces quickly came to understand that traditional countermine demining operations were insufficient to ensure troop habitability and operational safety in the base area, a situation not foreseen or provided for in current U.S. Army doctrine. This experience strongly suggests that the U.S. Army should assess its current countermine doctrine and introduce a doctrinal modification to take into account the future need to deal with mines and UXO in and around base areas.



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