After the death of Yugoslavia's ruler, Marshal Josip Broz Tito, in 1980, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) divided into five separate countries: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), and the Republic of Macedonia. Since that period, BiH has faced many changes. Shortly after its declaration of independence from the SFRY in March of 1992, the country broke out in conflict that lasted three years and resulted in three million displaced persons, over 250,000 dead or missing, and 170,000 wounded. Hostile action was primarily conducted by the Bosnian government army, the Bosnian Croat army and the Bosnian Serb army. Three years later, a peace agreement was signed and the conflict subsided, but not before BiH became a wasteland of landmines and items of UXO. Since that time, efforts have been undertaken to remove the threat of landmines in BiH and to restore economic stability through infrastructure and support. In April 2004, the estimated contaminated area in BiH was 2,780 square kilometers (1,073.36 square miles).
"Bosnia and Herzegovina,"
Journal of Mine Action
: Vol. 9
, Article 38.
Available at: https://commons.lib.jmu.edu/cisr-journal/vol9/iss1/38