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Most of the mines that currently threaten populations were manufactured more than 50 years ago and many have been in the ground for 30 years or more. Despite the inevitable and obvious deterioration, there has been very little research into the effects of aging on landmines. In 2008, James Madison University (JMU), the Center for International Stabilization and Recovery (CISR), and C King Associates Ltd (CKA) began a study designed to understand the aging process and the range of implications for the various components of mine action. The two-and-a-half year study was funded by grants from the US Department of State, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs/Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement.