Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


Date of Graduation

Summer 2018

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


School of Strategic Leadership Studies


Margaret F. Sloan

Karen A. Ford

Adam Vanhove


In an effort to better understand leadership and turnover in the nonprofit sector, this study investigated the impact of transactional and transformational leadership style on work attitudes, motivation, and work outcomes in nonprofit organizations. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Neither transactional leadership nor transformational leadership were significant predictors of turnover. Only transactional leadership was found to be a significant predictor of organizational citizenship behaviors. Transactional leadership was a significant predictor of perceived organizational support, affective commitment, procedural justice, and continuance commitment. Transformational leadership was a significant predictor of job satisfaction, perceived organizational support, and procedural justice. Finally, mediation analyses were conducted to determine if work attitudes and motivation mediate the relationship between transactional and transformational leadership styles and work outcomes. Affective commitment, job stress, satisfaction, and procedural justice collectively fully mediate the effect of transactional leadership on turnover and also fully mediate the effect of transformational leadership on turnover. Work and meaning, perceived organizational support, and public service motivation collectively fully mediate the effect of transactional leadership on organizational citizenship behaviors and also fully mediate the effect of transformational leadership on organizational citizenship behaviors. This study presents initial evidence of the relationship between public service motivation and organizational citizenship behaviors in the nonprofit contextFurther exploration of transformational leadership in the nonprofit context needs to be conducted given that this study was not able to confirm several findings in the previous research literature regarding public and private sector employees.



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