This cross-national study examines the ongoing gender imbalance in positions of power in local and national governments. While some countries have gone to great lengths to combat disproportion and inequality, others have taken steps backwards and have made it almost impossible to achieve equal opportunities for women. Despite the fact that women make up almost half of the world’s population, men still far outnumber women in government in the majority of countries worldwide. This quantitative study analyzes variation in women’s political representation in four categories: domestic roles, wage parity, political systems, and gender quotas. The results suggest that although the number of women pursuing and achieving positions of political office is increasing, challenges and historical tendencies still persist.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.