Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Date of Award

Spring 2013

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Department of Graduate Psychology


Increasing pressure on institutions of higher education to demonstrate what students are learning has resulted in an increase in assessment testing. Because these assessments are often low-stakes for students, educators often question whether inferences based on the resulting student scores are valid. Not unexpectedly, questions often arise regarding the extent to which students are engaged on low-stakes assessments. Additionally, how their level of engagement impacts their performance is also questioned. These questions are empirical in nature. Before such questions can be examined, a psychometrically sound instrument of cognitive engagement appropriate for the assessment context must be identified. This study sought to gather validity evidence for such an instrument, the CES-E (Appendix A) using Benson’s (1998) model for construct validation.

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