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Date of Award

Spring 2012

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Department of Graduate Psychology


The Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE; Wang et al., 2003) was developed to measure ethnocultural empathy and is a promising tool for assessing change in the construct over time. However, no prior study examines the functioning of the SEE over time. The purpose of the study was to examine the invariance of the SEE utilizing a modified factor model that included a negative wording effect. The SEE was found to exhibit longitudinal measurement invariance over a two-year time span in a sample of undergraduate students. Change over time was examined at the error-free, latent level and only one subscale (EPT) showed a significant increase over time. Test-retest coefficients showed most factors were relatively stable over time (i.e., individuals were changing in the same direction). The results point to the need for further examination of the SEE and of the negative wording factor on the scale, specifically.

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