Preferred Name

Ameera N. Teal

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Date of Graduation

Summer 2016

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Department of Kinesiology


Roshna E. Wunderlich

Christian R. Carter

Nicholas D. Luden


PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of sex and footwear on 3D kinematics, power output, and plantar pressure distribution during the loaded barbell back squat. METHODS: Eleven (four male, seven female) recreationally-active individuals completed six sets of three repetitions of the loaded barbell back squat at 60% of their measured 1RM. Using a randomized counterbalanced crossover design, one set was completed in each of the three footwear conditions – weightlifting shoes (WLS), running shoes (RS) and minimalist shoes (MS) – and 3D kinematics, ground reaction force (GRF), and plantar pressure distribution were collected. A two-way 2 (sex) x 3 (footwear) analysis of variances was used to evaluate differences. RESULTS: Females displayed significantly higher ankle plantarflexion and knee abduction at maximum knee flexion compared to males. Males exhibited significantly greater absolute peak power at the ankle, knee, and hip. Males had a lower mean absolute peak power knee to hip ratio in WLS compared to RS and MS while females had similar absolute peak power knee to hip ratios in WLS and RS. Males and females had similar ratios of peak pressure in the hindfoot relative to the total foot in WLS (0.78, 0.79 respectively). There was no interaction between sex and footwear when observing 3D kinematics, absolute peak joint power, and plantar pressure distribution in this study. Conclusions: Females may need to train in WLS before seeing changes in power distribution that favors hip power output. The influence of footwear could affect males more so than females in their ability to maintain peak pressure in the HF relative to the total foot in order to drive through the heels during the ascent of the loaded barbell back squat.



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