Preferred Name


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Date of Graduation

Spring 2019

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)


Department of Educational Foundations and Exceptionalities


Sara Snyder

Keri Bethune

Dannette Bronaugh

Mira Williams


The purpose of this research study was to determine how three different array sizes affect the efficiency of acquiring target functional words utilizing constant time delay in systematic instruction for students with intellectual disability. The results shown throughout this study can support teachers and administrators to know if adaptations to the array size in which the materials are presented visually during constant time delay instruction yield a more efficient way to teach. The current study utilized an adapted alternating treatment design, replicated across two students, to determine efficiency through trials-to-criterion for functional food and grocery words. The researcher presented array sizes of two, three, and four to each participant in the study. One participant reached mastery to criterion the fastest in an array size of two and the other reached mastery to criterion the fastest in an array size of four. The researcher also assessed each student utilizing what is typically presented to them in their classroom, however, neither participant reached mastery to criterion in this array the fastest. This suggests that we might not be presenting students with the most efficient approach to teaching. Due to the impact that these findings have on the efficient use of instructional time, the implications of this study demonstrate a higher need for research in the presentation of varying array sizes to students with intellectual disability.



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