During the period of June 1999 to mid-December 2001, the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) coordinated major international cleanup activities in Kosovo, which resulted in the successful clearance of more than 12.4 sq mi (32.1 sq km) of land and the destruction of more than 50,000 landmines, unexploded submunitions and other unexploded ordnance (UXO). Kosovo had considerable mine and explosive remnants of war (ERW) contamination, including cluster munition remnants (CMR) from armed conflict between forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Kosovo Liberation Army in the late 1990s, exacerbated by the NATO bombing in 1999.



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