Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


School of Strategic Leadership Studies


Adam Vanhove



Transformational leadership is a popular leadership theory that instigates extraordinary changes in individuals, teams and organizations. Transformational leaders motivate, enhance and transform their direct subordinates’ and followers’ actions, and their ethical aspirations are beyond their immediate self-interest. The current literature and research is focused on the transformational leadership outcomes, but little is known about the antecedents of transformational leadership. This research is an attempt to discover the impact of leaders’ formal education and professional training on transformational leadership and leadership effectiveness.

The target population of this research were the top leaders of the organizations from different sectors (education, production, banking, trade/distribution, services, and communication sectors) operating in Kosova. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ 5X-short) and a demographic questionnaire were used to collect the necessary data (Groves & Fowler, 2007; Kasunic, 2005). After data cleaning (Bartlett, Kotrlik & Higgins, 2001; Creswell, 2014; MacCallum, Browne & Sugawara, 1996), a sample of 252 top managers from different organizations was analyzed using multiple regression analyses.

Hierarchical regressions were conducted to test the relationships between leader’s formal education and professional training elements on one side, and transformational leadership and leadership effectiveness, separately, on the other side, as dependent variables. Results have shown a significant impact of leaders’ graduate degrees and the type of school on transformational leadership, across sectors, but not on leadership effectiveness. Post hoc analyses revealed that a leader’s graduate degree had a significant impact on all four “I” sub-dimensions of transformational leadership, but none on the leadership effectiveness sub-dimensions. The type of school, and the country of origin of education had a partial impact on both transformational leadership and leadership effectiveness sub-dimensions. The results of this study are a modest contribution about the antecedents of the transformational leadership.

Available for download on Thursday, April 28, 2022