This article analyzes how Covid-19 has impacted borders and xenophobia. In particular, it looks at how four countries with generally right-wing politics, but not necessarily right-wing viewpoints, have used xenophobia to deal with Covid-19: The United States, Japan, Brazil, and Australia. This paper chronicles the expected rise in blaming other countries for the spread of Covid-19 with unexpected consequences. Rather than solidifying national borders and constituencies in the face of an international threat through xenophobia, right-wing countries have instead created a successful border creation process with little room to expand. The options seem to be a fragmentation of these countries into internal borders.
Toohey, David E.
"The Spread of International Borders as a Prelude to the Spread of International Borders during COVID-19,"
International Journal of Peace Studies: Vol. 26:
2, Article 4.
Available at: https://commons.lib.jmu.edu/ijps/vol26/iss2/4