Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Department of Kinesiology


Christopher J. Womack

Michael J. Saunders

Elizabeth S. Edwards


Background: Acute fluid ingestion causes an increase in estimated body fat percentage (BF%) measurements by single frequency (SF-BIA) and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance (MF-BIA). However, it is unknown if MF-BIA accurately measures total body water (TBW) and BF% after chronic fluid retention. Creatine supplementation causes fluid retention, and resultant increases in TBW and body mass. Research is needed to determine if MF-BIA is capable of detecting fluid retention secondary to creatine supplementation. Methods: 13 male and 14 female subjects (18-22 y) completed one week of creatine monohydrate or maltodextrin supplementation at a dose of 0.3 g/kg body weight. Subjects completed pre-supplementation and post-supplementation measurements of body composition including dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), SF-BIA, and MF-BIA to measure BF%, fat free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM). Additionally, intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW), and TBW were estimated by MF- BIA. Results: The creatine group had a 2% increase (p < 0.05) in TBW between pre- and post-supplementation measured by MF-BIA (40.4 ± 9.5 to 41.2 ± 9.6 kg). FFM increased significantly more in the creatine group compared to the placebo group measured by all body composition modes (1.2 kg, 1.9 kg, and 1.1 kg increase in the creatine group measured by SF-BIA, MF-BIA, and DEXA respectively). Conclusions: One week of creatine supplementation caused an increase in TBW that was detected by MF-BIA. Changes in body composition that occurred due to the increase in TBW were detected as an increase in FFM measured by SF-BIA, MF-BIA, and DEXA.

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