Preferred Name

Megan Barnes

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Department of Graduate Psychology


Trevor Stokes

Benjamin Riden

Lora Henderson


We examined the effects of the procedures recommended for interventions using the Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) protocols on child verbalizations. The effects of the procedures of Child-Directed Interaction (CDI) were examined in a non-concurrent multiple baseline across participants design. Two seven-year-old participants with developmental disabilities and language delay experienced a baseline condition followed by two experimental conditions during a free play environment. A range of child toys were rotated systematically throughout the study. The total number of therapist-child interactions remained consistent across all experimental conditions. The experimenter received bug-in-the-ear feedback about her use of the therapy components in order to maintain similar interaction frequencies across the study. Only the topography of the interactions varied across conditions. During the first experimental condition the therapist used descriptive-labeled praise, behavior descriptions, and motor imitation of appropriate play. During the second experimental condition the therapist systematically added the use of reflections of child vocalizations. Within the non-concurrent design, total verbalizations, total different verbalizations, and mean length of utterance increased following the introduction of the first intervention condition. Total verbalizations and total different verbalizations increased further following the systematic introduction of reflections of child verbalizations.



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