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This article traces the twentieth-century historiography of King Philip’s War, a destructive eleven-month conflict between New Englanders and their “Praying Indian” allies and a loose alliance of Southern Algonquians led by the Wampanoag sachem Metacom, or King Philip. Although widely impactful across New England, the war attracted little scholarly attention until the late 1950s, when historian Douglas E. Leach wrote Flintlock and Tomahawk. Leach’s book reignited the historical profession’s interest in the conflict and launched two significant and wide-ranging historiographic debates that are the subjects of this article. The first of these historiographic debates concerned the relationship between categories of identity, wartime alliances, and intercultural encounters. The second historiographical debate concerns the most suitable name for the war

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