This study was an investigation of the effects of sequenced Kodály literacy-based music instruction on the spatial reasoning skills of kindergarten students. Subjects in the pretest-posttest control group design were 54 kindergarten students who were enrolled in three kindergarten classes in a rural elementary community school. Experimental group one (n = 18) received Kodály music instruction and experimental group two (n = 18) received computer instruction (with no classroom music training) for 30 minutes twice a week. The control group (n = 18) received no classroom music instruction or computer instruction. The instructional-treatment period spanned seven months from October, 2000 through April, 2001. A spatial-temporal measure, a spatial measure, and a nonspatial (verbal) measure served as the dependent variables. Three separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) revealed no significant difference between the three groups in pretest, posttest, or gain scores (posttest minus pretest) for each of the three measures.



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