Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Educational Specialist (EdS)


Department of Graduate Psychology


Deborah Kipps-Vaughan

Tammy Gilligan

Tiffany Hornsby


School systems and personnel are beginning to recognize the immense impact that trauma has on their student populations and take initiative to address these factors within the school building using trauma responsive practices. School personnel are likely to encounter the effects of trauma on a regular basis in the management of behavioral concerns, which have a dose-response relationship to traumatic experiences. School principals are leaders in the school building and have a large influence on school-wide practices, thus are in the unique position to alter policy and practice. The current study examined Virginia elementary school principals’ level of trauma training, use of trauma responsive practices, perceptions of their school’s trauma awareness and effectiveness of trauma responsive practices, and barriers to implementation of trauma responsive practices. The data collected from the study supported the need for more staff training, recognizing teachers as key stakeholders in the transition to become more trauma responsive, and more resources directed towards this endeavor in schools, including mental health professionals.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.