Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Educational Specialist (EdS)


Department of Graduate Psychology


Tiffany Hornsby

Amanda Evans

Deborah Kipps-Vaughan


Over the course of the past few years, research regarding Black students has continued to increase. However, a lot of the research regarding Black students has focused heavily on the experiences and outcomes of African American students. Due to the history in the United States, the term Black has become synonymous with African American, leaving out the experiences of many second-generation African children. This explanatory mixed-methods design study examined second-generation African students’ ethnic identity and sense of belonging within the Black community in their school system. This study also compared reported levels of belongingness in college experiences versus high school. An electronic survey was distributed to 40 second-generation African Students currently attending 4-year public universities in Virginia. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 5 participants to gain insight on belongingness within the Black community. Recommendations for school psychologists and practitioners working with second- generation African students were provided. This study allows school psychologists to gain knowledge about the ethnic identity and sense of belonging among second-generation African students, so that they are able to be better advocates for their needs.



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