Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Date of Graduation

Spring 2015

Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN)

Archival Department Name

Deaprtment of Nursing


Christine A. Argenbright


This literature review examined two pharmacological forms of postoperative pain

management and one nonpharmacological intervention to help reduce pain (See

Appendix A). Sources were gathered from the nursing research databases of

Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and PubMed.

Articles and studies between 2004 and 2015 were analyzed to write the review. The

focus was to look at postoperative patients and determine if epidural or patient

controlled analgesia (PCA) provided the same satisfaction for individuals who

underwent surgery. In addition, music therapy was researched to explore the effects

of listening to a pleasurable sound and how it might reduce the pain experience.

Although, epidural and PCA are widely used to reduce pain management in surgical

patients, epidural administration was more effective in controlling pain levels but is

associated with serious risks. Patient controlled analgesia allows patients to have a

sense of control and reduce the level of fear associated with surgery, potential pain,

and sense of inferiority.



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