Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Date of Graduation

Spring 2019

Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science (BS)


Department of Sociology and Anthropology


Joshua M. Linder

Jennifer E. Coffman

Chris R. Colocousis


The consequences of human activities through territorial occupation, resource extraction, and waste deposition, all characteristics of the Anthropocene, have severely impacted biodiversity. In some countries, passing and enforcing environmental legislation to protect the environment has proven to be a major challenge. Various types of terrestrial protected areas have been established to safeguard, manage, and utilize the biodiversity of non-human species and anthropocentrically-defined natural resources, cover approximately 14.7% of the earth’s surface, according to the World Bank (n.d) and IUCN (2008). With 38% of its land dedicated to protected areas, Tanzania exceeds the global average, but not without controversy. Critics of conservation practices in Tanzania claim that they fail to consider local livelihoods, which results in marginalization and further degradation of lands and livelihoods. This paper will assess three case studies that are directly involved with the conflict between local communities and conservation development by focusing on communities of Maasai pastoralists in Northern Tanzania as they attempt to renegotiate land access to support rapidly growing populations. Case studies include Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Longido District Maasailand, and Ngerengere River Eco Camp (NGERIV). Through these case studies, this paper examines how conservationists have worked with communities to develop multipronged solutions that promote social, cultural, and economic incentives for conservation, as well as analyzes the spatial and historical limits of protected areas.



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