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Date of Graduation
Bachelor of Arts (BA)
Department of History
Emily M. Westkaemper
Transgender and gender non-conforming people in San Francisco and New York City were oppressed in many ways during the 1960s and 1970s. Due to employment discrimination, many were homeless and worked as prostitutes. While living on the streets, transgender and gender non-conforming people frequently faced arrest and police harassment due to laws against cross-dressing and solicitation. Transgender and gender non-conforming people were also oftentimes the victims of hate crimes. Even gay liberation activists oppressed transgender and gender non-conforming people. They did this by excluding transgender and gender non-conforming people from gay liberation organizations and refusing to support transgender causes. Despite the obstacles they faced, many transgender and gender non-conforming people of San Francisco and New York City carried out some of the most fearless activist efforts of the gay liberation era.
Brady, James, "Anti-transgender discrimination and oppression in New York City and San Francisco during the Gay Liberation Movement, 1965-1975" (2015). Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019. 73.