Preferred Name

Carleigh Fuhrman

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Educational Specialist (EdS)


Department of Graduate Psychology


Ashton Trice

Tammy Gilligan

Deborah Kipps-Vaughan


This paper discusses educational systems change, specifically in regard to conflict management programs and discipline policies. Many students exhibit negative behaviors throughout their K-12 education and school psychologists are frequently involved in mediating those behaviors. Many schools have implemented programs such as Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Restorative Practices in schools in hopes of preventing and reducing student’s negative behaviors. Both PBIS and Restorative Practices are intervention programs that teach decision-making and problem-solving skills (Ingraham et al., 2016), and shift the focus from reacting to negative behaviors with punitive consequences to focusing on strengthening desired, positive behaviors (Sprague, 2012). In this study, school psychologists who are familiar with or transitioned to utilizing PBIS or Restorative Practices are interviewed to gain insight about their perceptions of systems readiness for change, benefits and liabilities during implementation, effectiveness, and impact on practice. As a result of a thematic analysis, several themes emerged related to each area listed previously. Although systems are different, many of the same themes and perceptions were highlighted during interviews.



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